Transport of goods and people can be done by land, air and water. Transport by land is done through Roadways and Railways. Now a days land transportation is considered as most easy and economical method for internal movement of goods and people. Roadways play an important role in the economic, social and commercial development of a country. The people have to move from one place to another at speed. So for the proper development of the country, effective system of transport is a must. Without construction of proper network of roadways, it is possible to develop any area. Before taking the construction of a town in hand it is very important to first lay a network of roads for the proper development of that town.
It is a public thoroughfare over which pedestrian, cyclists and other vehicles etc. May move lawfully from one place to another place is called a road or highway.
2. Country Road
A road connecting one town with another is called a country road.
3. Urban Road
A road within a city or a town is known as urban road.
4. Foot path
The portion of a roadway of an urban road which is reserved for the pedestrian is called foot path.
The portion of an urban road which is used by high speed and power driven vehicles is called mortar way.
6. Carriage way
It is the portion of road used for vehicular traffic.
7. Trunk Road, Arterial Road
It is the main road forming the essential part of highway system of a country.
8. Ring Road
To enable free movement of traffic around an urban area, a circumferential road is constructed which is called ring road.
9. By-pass Road
A road provided around the congested area is called by-pass road.
10. Loop Road
These are alternative roads provided to divert traffic to avoid obstructions.
11. Road Margin
The portion of land on either side of the formation width of a road are known as road margin.
12. Formation Width
The top width of a road embankment or bottom width of cutting excluding the side drains is called formation width.
The portions of the roadway between the outer edges of the pavement and edges of the top surface of embankment or inner edge of the side drains in cutting are known as shoulders.
14. Side Slopes
The slopes given to the sides of earthworks of a road in embankment or in cutting for its stability are called side slopes. It is kept 2 : 1 in embankment and 1 : 1 in cutting.
The boundaries between the pavement and shoulders or footpaths are known as Krebs.
16. Formation Level
The reduced level of the finished surface of earthwork for a road or railway track in embankment or in cutting is called formation level.
The convexity provided to the surface of carriage way or the rise given to the center of carriage way above its edges on straight portion of a road is called a chamber.
The longitudinal slope or the rate of rise or fall of formation level of a road along its alignment is called grade or gradient.
19. Design Speed
The maximum safe speed of vehicles assumed for geometrical design of a roadway is known as design speed.
20. Sight Distance
The distance along the center line of a road at which a driver has visibility of an object, stationary or moving at a specified height above the carriage way is called sight distance.
It is the inward transverse inclination provided to the cross-section of the carriage way at a horizontal curved portion of a road. It is also called as cant or banking.
22. Road Alignment
The portion occupied by the center line of a road in plan is called the road alignment.
23. Spoil Bank, Tip or Shoot
The surplus soil obtained during the road construction and stacked in the shape of a bank is called spoil bank.
24. Traffic Signs
The devices in the form of symbols or inscriptions mounted on fixed or portable supports provided on roads to give warning, direction or guidance to the road user are called road or traffic signs.
25. Traffic Signals
The devices used for controlling warning and guiding the traffic are called the traffic signals.
26. Traffic Island
The raised platforms of suitable shapes built on the road intersections are called traffic Island.
27. Road Pavement
A layered structure supported by the sub grade soil to form the carriageway of a road is called a road pavement.
28. Sub Grade
The finished and compacted surface of earthwork on which a road pavement rests is called sub grade.