Here in this guide we are going to elaborate the definition, meaning, and types of bonds of brick masonry:
Brick masonry is defined as an activity that puts together individual units(bricks) to construct buildings, walls etc. Those who are involved in the process are referred as masons.
Bonds in Brick Masonry Construction
The bricks are manufactured in proper size and shape. Thus these can be arranged in various patterns and designs. The laying of bricks in different patterns are called types of bonds. To eliminate continuous vertical joints in the body and face of walls, the Bonding is very essential.
The various types of bonds commonly used in the construction of brick masonry are given below:-
1. English Bond
This bond consists of alternate course of headers and stretchers. For breaking the vertical joints in the successive courses, a queen closer is placed after the first header in each heading course. The heading course should not start with queen closer. In this bond, the walls with one brick, two bricks and three bricks thicknesses present the same look on both the faces. As the number of joints in header course are about twice the joints in stretcher course, hence the joints in header course are made thin than stretcher course.
2. Flemish Bond
The bond consists of alternate headers and stretchers in each course. The alternate headers in each course are centered over the stretchers in the course below. The vertical joints are broken by inserting closer in alternate courses next to the corner. This bond is of two types. Single Flemish bond and Double Flemish bond.
3. Single Flemish Bond
This is combination of both English and Flemish bond. Facing of the work consists of Flemish bond while backing is in English bond. This bond can not be constructed in walls less than 1 1/2 brick thickness. This bond ensures attractive appearance and full strength to the walls.
4. Double Flemish Bond
This bond consists of headers and stretchers laid alternately in each course and presents the same look both in external and internal surfaces. This bond is economical and good in appearance. But this bond is weaker than English bond because it consists of a large number of short continuous vertical joints.
5. Heading Bond
In this type of bonding all the bricks are laid as headers on the faces and it is mostly used for footings in foundation.
6. Diagnol Bond
This type of bond is used for the walls which are 3 to 4 bricks in thickness. It is applied between the stretching faces at every 5th or 7th course. The triangular faces formed near the stretching faces are filled with pieces of bricks and not with mortar only.
7. Stretching Bond
This is mostly used in half brick walls. All the bricks are laid as stretchers in each course. The vertical joints are broken by using a half brick bat in alternate course.
8. Garden Wall Bond
This bond is suitably adopted for one brick thick wall which may act as Garden Wall or Boundary wall. This is not so strong as English bond. In this type of bond it is possible to build uniform faces for a wall without much labor or expense. On account of its good appearance, this bond is sometime used for the construction of outer leaves of cavity walls. There are two types of Garden wall bond – English Garden Wall Bond and Flemish Garden Wall Bond.
9. Hearing Bone Bond
In this type of bond the bricks are laid in courses inclined at 45° in two directions from the center this can be applied to walls which are at least 4 bricks in thickness.
10. Zig Zag Bond
This is similar to Hearing bone bond with the only difference that in this case the bricks are laid in a Zig Zag fashion. This is commonly adopted in brick paved flooring.
11. English Cross Bond
This is similar to English Bond and consists of alternate courses of headers and stretchers but queen closer in this bond are used next to queen headers. This is a strong bond and gives a good elevation. In this each alternate stretching course consists a header placed next to queen stretcher.
12. Dutch Bond
This bond consists of alternate courses of headers and stretchers. Each stretching course starts at the quoin with 3/4 bat. Also the other bonds used in the construction are Facing bond, Racking bond and Silver-lock’s bond etc.