In this comprehensive article, we are going to address the characteristic features of a typical Terrestrial ecosystem.
1. Characteristic Features
Terrestrial ecosystems are governed by yearly difference of temperature, rainfall, soil condition, availability of nutrients and of sunlight and many other Abiotic as well as Biotic factors of the environment. The five major Terrestrial ecosystems are as under.
- Tundra: The tundra biome lies between the arctic ocean and the coniferous forests and it streches over an area about 5 million across North America, Europe and Asia beyond 60°N latitude. The animals are arctic fox, polar bear, snowy bear, lemming, reptiles, amphibians etc are almost absent.
- Taiga: They extend in a giant circle around northern Europe,Asia and North America but in areas of more moderate temperatures than tundra’s. The dominating vegetation is coniferous evergreens with some pine and firs. The animals are small seed eating birds and predators such as hawks, fur bearing Cornivores, little mink, elka, puma, Siberian tiger, wolves etc.
- Temperate Deciduous Forest: They extend over central and southern Europe, eastern North America, Western China, Japan, New Zealand etc. the flora include trees like beach, oak, maple and cherry. Most animals are familiar vertebrates and invertebrates.
- Tropical Rain Forest: They are found in the Tropical areas of high rainfall in the equatorial regions of central america and northern south america. They dominated multiple storeys of broad leafed evergreen species. Animals are found annelids, arthopods, amphibians and reptiles.
- Savanna: Tropical region dominated by grasses with scattered trees and fire resisting throny shrubs. The fauna include a great diversity of grazers and browsers such as antelopes, buffaloes, zebras, elephants and rhinoceros.