A very small industrial plant may be protected against interference and theft by a fence, locked gate and proper illumination at night. Thieves and unauthorized persons may not be tempted to enter through the tall fence/gate. A large industrial plant remote from cities and not connected to rail/road network except by a dedicated road/rail track also has low risks of theft and interference during regular operation.
The following operations can be broadly explained are as under:-
1. Security Programme
The security programme document outlines the objectives, functions, documentations, organisation, responsibilities, facilities, budget, targets etc. The trained security staff may be hired through security subcontractors. The necessary budget must be provided. Very tight security makes normal working very difficult. Very loose security results in costing thefts or accidents related with unauthorized persons entering the premises. A balanced reasonable good and effective security system must be adopted.
2. Fences and Walls
The most important security arrangement for industrial plant is the provision of fences or masonry walls around the entire perimeter of the plant premises. Some industrial plant may take advantage of natural river/mountain on one or two sides.
Most common type of security fence for industrial plant is of chain type mesh with wire gauge of 3 mm diameter and 50 m square mesh. The chain link should extend to within 50 mm from ground and minimum height should be 3 meters. Wires are plastic coated to prevent rusting. The mesh should be tightly drawn by secured to rigid metal posts set in concrete foundation.
3. External Landscape
The outline area surrounding the main industrial plant should be free from under growth, debris and packing wood. The outdoor storage area should be well defined, orderly, fenced and locked. The outdoor store and other area should be periodically patrolled.
Internal areas and outdoor areas must be provided with lighting. The fence should be provided with lighting. Gates and doors, parking areas should be well lighted. The lighting fixtures should be regularly maintained. The defective bulbs/tubes should be promptly replaced.
5. Building Security
The walls, windows should be strong to eliminate easy entry. The doors should be locked and entry should be permitted for authorized persons only. A room building should be provided for security office. The security facilities should be properly stored.
6. Alarm System
An alarm is sounded under situation requiring immediate attention and response. Every alarm system has three basic elements.
A sensor which detects abnormal condition and triggers the signal.
A control unit which receives signals and transmits the same to the annunciation system. The annunciater may be local or remote, audible or visible. The security alarms require sensor detect intrusion of unauthorized person in the premises. Several types of sensors have been developed:
(a) Contact Switch Type (b) Pressure Mat Type (c) Taut Wire Type (d) Video or Light Detector (e) Microwave Detector (f) Electro Magnetic Field Detector.
The alarm system is the bell or horn. During an abnormal condition, the bell or the horn is sounded. The attention of security personnel is drawn to the spot.
With availability of a variety of alarm systems, it becomes difficult to select a suitable system. The local need and cost factor should be considered.
The outer perimeter fence receives the first priority. The next priority is given to the buildings. Alarm system is also provided for the high value storage.
7. Visitor Entry Pass and Employee Entry Pass
Each employee is given special photo pass. The employee is allowed entry through the gate only after showing the photo pass. The contractors and contract labor are given temporary entry passes. The visitors are given special entry pass for the day. The entry to computer room, gas plant, control room and other sensitive zones is permitted only against a special entry pass indicating the specific zone for entry.
The security guards are provided with portable two way communication sets including telephone, wireless. The guards on duty can communicate with security supervisor in security office. The patrolling van is also in communication with the security office. Close circuit TV (CCTV) may be provided for sensitive areas.
9. Safe Keys and Locks
Gates and doors are provided with locks and keys, Duplicate keys are kept on central key board in security office.
10. Security Guard Force
Security guards are provided in three shifts on independent basis. The number of guards per shifts depends on number of personnel working per shift and amount of coverage required secure the premises. The guards are provided with uniform, shoes, arms, vehicles.