Public health is the branch of engineering which deals with water supply and sanitation works. Water supply engineering comprises of storage of water, purification of water and its distribution for its proper use while sanitary engineering starts where water supply engineering ends. Sanitary engineering starts with the collecting system and ends after discharging the collected system into the streams rivers etc. Sanitary works comprise of collection systems, treatment works and disposal works.
Terms Used in Public Health Engineering
The following terms should be taken in Public Health Engineering:
1. Water Supply System
The system of water supply consists of service pipe, the other connecting pipes, pipe fittings, control valves etc. Which are connected together to supply water to a building for the use of its occupants.
2. Water Main
Water main which is also called a street main is a water supply pipe laid by the Administrative authorities like Municipal Committee from which the house connections are allowed by it.
3. Storage Tank
It is a tank or cistern in which water is stored and is connected to the water main by means of supply pipe.
4. House Plumbing
The materials and systems used for the installation, maintenance, extension, alternation of pipe system of a house or building is called house plumbing.
5. Plumbing System
It includes supply and distribution pipes, fixtures taps, valves, soil, vent and waste pipes, drains, sewers and all their connections.
6. Available Head
It is the water head available from a water main to the plinth level of the building.
7. Air Gap
It is the unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the lowest opening from any pipe supplying water to a tank, plumbing fixture or other device and flood level rim of the receptacle in a water supply stream.
8. Back flow
It is the flow of water or any other liquid in distribution pipes of water supply stream system from any source or source other than its regular source.
9. Back Syphonage
it is the flow of used water from a plumbing fixture or vessel into the supply pipe due to the lowering of pressure in supply pipe.
10. Residual Head
It is the pressure available at the tail end of the distribution system:
11. Wash Out Valve
It is the device which is fitted at the bottom of the tank for the purpose of draining the water out for cleaning and maintenance.
12.Down Take Tap
It is a tap fitted to a system of piping which is not subjected to water pressure from the water main.
It is an electrical appliance used for heating the water control at inlet side and having free outlet.
It is that portion of pipe which its dai-meter and wall thickness remain uniform thought.
It is the support provided to pipe on the trench floor by concrete or any other suitable material.
It is the device provided in a trap to preserve its water seal.
It is the line of assembled pipes with all fittings and equipment’s like manhole, traps and galleys which is used to carry water from a buildings. drain may be open or under ground type.
Drainage is the system by which used and contaminated water in a building is removed by means of drains.
It is a underground pipe line used to carry night soil from water closets in a building or other water bone waste.
It is the system of underground sewers to carry sewage by water carriage system away from the towns or cities to dispose it off in such a way that it may not cause any damage to human health.
21. Sub Soil Water Drain
It is the drain which carries sub-soil water.
22. Surface Water Drain
It is the drain which carries surface water and storm water for its disposal.
23. Soil Pipe
The pipe receiving the discharges from the soil fitments is called soil pipe.
24. Vent Pipe
It is a pipe is used to provide flow of air to or from drainage system. It provides air circulation to the system and protects trap seats from the syphonage or back flow.
25. Ventilating Pipe
It is the pipe which is used to discharge foul gases in the drain or sewer into the atmosphere.
It includes all types of house waste and garbage in dry form.
It is the solid or semi-solid waste from a house like peelings of vegetables and fruits wastes of food etc.
Rubbish includes solid wastes like waste papers, broken furniture, pottery, waste materials of buildings etc.
It is the residual substance obtained after burning the wood, coal, coke etc., in hearths and furnace in the buildings.
It is the hole or shaft provided in a drain, sewer or any other closed structure in which a man enter for inspection, cleaning or maintenance operation. A manhole is provided with a cover at top.
31. Cleaning Eye
It is an opening in a drain or sewer which is used for cleaning any obstruction in it by means of drain rod. It is provided with removable cover.
32. Soak Away
It is a pit which is suitably prepared to receive soil waste water or partially treated sewage for seepage into the ground.
Sewage includes all types of liquid wastes in a building. It may be storm sewage or sanitary sewage.