Public health is the branch of engineering which deals with water supply and sanitation works. Water supply engineering comprises of storage of water, purification of water and its distribution for its proper use while sanitary engineering starts where water supply engineering ends. Sanitary engineering starts with the collecting system and ends after discharging the collected system into the streams rivers etc. Sanitary works comprise of collection systems, treatment works and disposal works.

Terms Used in Public Health Engineering

The following terms should be taken in Public Health Engineering:

1. Water Supply System

The system of water supply consists of service pipe, the other connecting pipes, pipe fittings, control valves etc. Which are connected together to supply water to a building for the use of its occupants.

2. Water Main

Water main which is also called a street main is a water supply pipe laid by the Administrative authorities like Municipal Committee from which the house connections are allowed by it.

3. Storage Tank

It is a tank or cistern in which water is stored and is connected to the water main by means of supply pipe.

 4. House Plumbing

The materials and systems used for the installation, maintenance, extension, alternation of pipe system of a house or building is called house plumbing.

5. Plumbing System

It includes supply and distribution pipes, fixtures taps, valves, soil, vent and waste pipes, drains, sewers and all their connections.

6. Available Head

It is the water head available from a water main to the plinth level of the building.

7. Air Gap

It is the unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the lowest opening from any pipe supplying water to a tank, plumbing fixture or other device and flood level rim of the receptacle in a water supply stream.

8. Back flow

It is the flow of water or any other liquid in distribution pipes of water supply stream system from any source or source other than its regular source.

9. Back Syphonage

it is the flow of used water from a plumbing fixture or vessel into the supply pipe due to the lowering of pressure in supply pipe.

10. Residual Head

It is the pressure available at the tail end of the distribution system:

11. Wash Out Valve

It is the device which is fitted at the bottom of the tank for the purpose of draining the water out for cleaning and maintenance.

12.Down Take Tap

It is a tap fitted to a system of piping which is not subjected to water pressure from the water main.

13. Geyser

It is an electrical appliance used for heating the water control at inlet side and having free outlet.

14. Barrel

It is that portion of pipe which its dai-meter and wall thickness remain uniform thought.

15. Bedding

It is the support provided to pipe on the trench floor by concrete or any other suitable material.

16. Anti-syphonage

It is the device provided in a trap to preserve its water seal.

17. Drain

It is the line of assembled pipes with all fittings and equipment’s like manhole, traps and galleys which is used to carry water from a buildings. drain may be open or under ground type.

18. Drainage

Drainage is the system by which used and contaminated water in a building is removed by means of drains.

19. Sewer

It is a underground pipe line used to carry night soil from water closets in a building or other water bone waste.

20. Sewerage

It is the system of underground sewers to carry sewage by water carriage system away from the towns or cities to dispose it off in such a way that it may not cause any damage to human health.

21. Sub Soil Water Drain

It is the drain which carries sub-soil water.

22. Surface Water Drain

It is the drain which carries surface water and storm water for its disposal.

23. Soil Pipe

The pipe receiving the discharges from the soil fitments is called soil pipe.

24. Vent Pipe

It is a pipe is used to provide flow of air to or from drainage system. It provides air circulation to the system and protects trap seats from the syphonage or back flow.

25. Ventilating Pipe

It is the pipe which is used to discharge foul gases in the drain or sewer into the atmosphere.

26. Refuse

It includes all types of house waste and garbage in dry form.

27. Garbage

It is the solid or semi-solid waste from a house like peelings of vegetables and fruits wastes of food etc.

28. Rubbish

Rubbish includes solid wastes like waste papers, broken furniture, pottery, waste materials of buildings etc.

29. Ashes

It is the residual substance obtained after burning the wood, coal, coke etc., in hearths and furnace in the buildings.

30. Manhole

It is the hole or shaft provided in a drain, sewer or any other closed structure in which a man enter for inspection, cleaning or maintenance operation. A manhole is provided with a cover at top.

31. Cleaning Eye

It is an opening in a drain or sewer which is used for cleaning any obstruction in it by means of drain rod. It is provided with removable cover.

32. Soak Away

It is a pit which is suitably prepared to receive soil waste water or partially treated sewage for seepage into the ground.

33. Sewage

Sewage includes all types of liquid wastes in a building. It may be storm sewage or sanitary sewage.

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