Environmental Science

Types and Functions of Ecosystem

Last time, we had explained to you the definition and components of an ecosystem. Today, we have come up with a different topic – types and functions of an ecosystem. Let’s now pedal down the learning accelerator.

Ecosystem types

Actually, there are two main types of an ecosystem – an artificial ecosystem and a natural ecosystem.

1. Artificial ecosystem

An Artificial ecosystem is a man-made. Human activities modify and convert natural ecosystems. For example, natural forests are cut and the land is used for plantations or agricultural systems. Other examples of artificial ecosystems include gardens, parks, and aquaria.

1. Natural ecosystem

They are self-regulating systems without much direct human interference and manipulations. For example, ecosystem existing in ponds, lakes, rivers, streams, oceans, seas, forests, grasslands, deserts, etc. Based upon the particular kind of habitat, the natural ecosystems are further categorized into terrestrial and aquatic. Terrestrial ecosystems include forests, grasslands, and deserts. An aquatic ecosystem can be either freshwater (ponds, lakes, streams). or salt water (marine, estuaries) type.

2. Functions of the ecosystem

A highly diverse ecosystem is a sign of a healthy system. All the living world relies on the natural environment. It is in our best interests and the interests of our future generations to conserve biodiversity and our resources. The benefits and services provided by the ecosystem are as follows:

  • Generation of soils.
  • Maintenance of soil, air and water quality.
  • Pest control.
  • Detoxification and decomposition of wastes.
  • Pollination.
  • Crop production.
  • Climate stabilization.
  • Prevention and mitigation of natural disasters.
  • Provision of food security and heslth care medicines.
  • Income generation.

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